Do the osteopaths use breathing techniques and assess the breathing within their treatment?

Feb 15, 2024

Do the osteopaths use breathing techniques and assess the breathing within their treatment?

Do the osteopaths use breathing techniques and assess the breathing within their treatment?

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Assignment: Research Proposal

The Research Proposal, 3,000 words in length, must be sectioned as shown below:

  1. Title
  2. Keywords
  3. Literature review
  4. Aims and objectives of the study
  5. Literature search
  6. Osteopathic relevance
  7. Practical and ethical issues
  8. References

The proposal is assessed on the presentation and logical development of topic, the interpretation, integration and critical analysis of information, the extent and topicality of literature surveyed and the conclusions drawn from the review process. The feasibility and organisation of your proposed project should be included in section 5.

  1. Title
    The title should clearly indicate the topic of your study
  2. Key Words
    Please provide 2-6 key words that reflect the key elements of the article, using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) indexed headings at Key words are used to search for relevant articles through databases. Words included in the title will be searched automatically; therefore it is redundant to repeat these words. Key words should be presented below the title, in bold font and separated by semicolons and a space.
  3. Literature review
    The literature review should cover an area relevant to your dissertation title. It should be general in nature and provide well-written critically appraised background information within the field of osteopathy. Present your review of relevant literature, including any data interpretation where necessary. Particular attention should be paid to any field, laboratory and theoretical studies in your chosen field. All statements should be backed-up with appropriate referencing.
    Please note that source material should be carefully selected and not reproduced verbatim.
  4. Aims and objectives
    The aim(s) should explain what you hope to achieve as a result of the study. These could be listed with bullet points, but carefully worded for clarity.
    The objectives are more specific and explain what you intend to investigate in order to achieve the aims of your study. Essentially, the objectives are the steps to achieving your study aim.
    For quantitative studies, you should then present your experimental hypothesis(es) and the Null hypothesis(es) that you are going to test.
  5. Literature search
    Briefly indicate the sources of the literature cited – and approach
  6. Osteopathic relevance
    Relate your study to osteopathic theory or practice
  7. Practical and ethical issues
    This section should contain appropriate illustrations (e.g. flow chart, tables, diagrams, graphs) where necessary. The components of the practical issues are listed below.
    Approach and methodology: Your study question needs to be suitable to be conducted through either a quantitative or a qualitative research paradigm. Within this section, you need to explain how each approach could be used and to explore relevant research methodologies under each approach. This should illustrate your understanding of both research paradigms. You need to justify your choices throughout, drawing upon appropriate literature sources to support your reasoning.
    For each approach, you will need to state and briefly explain the research design chosen for your study. Please put in an argument as to why you chose the particular research design and why this is the best approach to address your study question (argument has to be balanced, reasoned and logical). This is to be followed by a paragraph (or any other means, e.g. table) stating the type(s) of data to be collected and how this data will address your stated study purpose. For the quantitative approach, you will need to identify the variables you are going to need/use to test your hypothesis(es)/Null hypothesis(es) you introduced in the aims section of the study. Explain what led to the choice of these variables and how they link to the hypothesis testing.
    Furthermore, this section should include all practical and analytical methods as well as interview/questionnaire design. You also need to provide a well-reasoned justification for your choices of data analysis methods. You must clearly indicate the number of participants in the investigation, how you will collect data over a stated timetable – where appropriate, replicates and controls should be included. Throughout this section, you will need to draw upon the research methods literature to support your reasoning.

Flow chart: The flow chart shows the sequence of work you propose to carry out. Please lay out the flow chart on a single sheet of paper using text boxes and vertical plus / or horizontal arrows. Alternatively, you could present this in a Gantt chart. This chart should indicate in broad terms how you propose to utilise your time in order to achieve the project objectives
Resources required: This should set out what resources you require and how these are going to be met. It may be necessary to discuss these with your supervisor.
Ethical issues: this need to be addressed because it may influence your experimental design

  1. References:
    The Harvard referencing system must be used; please see ARU guidelines for more details. Correct referencing is very important.
    Citation (in the text)
    With the Harvard system, at every point in the text at which reference to a source is
    made, the author’s surname (no initial) and the year of publication (all in brackets) are inserted. If the author’s name occurs naturally in the sentence, the year is given in brackets, for example :-
    ….has been explored in the sciences (Crane and Brogan,1992).
    .…as defined by Roberts (1996)
    …. other workers disagree with these findings (Hudson, et al., 1999)
    In the text, if there are two or three authors, include all. If there are four or more use ‘et al.’.

In the reference section
In the reference section, these are listed in alphabetical order (not numbered) and
subdivided if necessary by year and a letter. Note the sequence of full stops and
commas in the examples in the ARU Referencing Guide.

General points regarding referencing
It is important to use a consistent approach when referring to published material in the text and when listing references in the reference list at the end of the review. Using the Harvard system, in the text, include the names of either the single author or both authors in a joint paper. If there are more than three authors, list the first followed by et al.

References should be listed in alphabetical order (by author) in the reference list. All the names of the authors should be included – do not use ‘et al. ‘ in the reference list. You are advised to check the accuracy of your final reference list against the original papers. Do not include references, which are not referred to in the dissertation proposal.

You will be penalised for errors in referencing.

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